HAP 2 Notes PDF:

If you are a student studying HAP 2 in the first semester, you might be looking for notes to help you prepare for your exams. Fortunately, there are HAP 2nd semester notes available in PDF format that can be easily downloaded and used for your studies.

Unit 1

Nervous system
Organization of nervous system, neuron, neuroglia, classification and properties of nerve fibre, electrophysiology, action potential, nerve impulse, receptors, synapse, neurotransmitters. Central nervous system: Meninges, ventricles of brain and cerebrospinal fluid.structure and functions of brain (cerebrum, brain stem, cerebellum), spinal cord (gross structure, functions of afferent and efferent nerve tracts,reflex activity)


Unit 2

Digestive system
Anatomy of GI Tract with special reference to anatomy and functions of stomach, ( Acid production in the stomach, regulation of acid production through parasympathetic nervous system, pepsin role in protein digestion) small intestine and large intestine, anatomy and functions of salivary glands, pancreas and liver, movements of GIT, digestion and absorption of nutrients and disorders of GIT.

Energetics
Formation and role of ATP, Creatinine Phosphate and BMR.


Unit 3

Respiratory system
Anatomy of respiratory system with special reference to anatomy of lungs, mechanism of respiration, regulation of respiration

Lung Volumes and capacities transport of respiratory gases, artificial respiration, and resuscitation methods.

Urinary system Anatomy of urinary tract with special reference to anatomy of kidney and nephrons, functions of kidney and urinary tract, physiology of urine formation, micturition reflex and role of kidneys in acid base balance, role of RAS in kidney and disorders of kidney.


Unit 4

Endocrine system Classification of hormones, mechanism of hormone action, structure and functions of pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, pineal gland, thymus and their disorders.


Unit 5

Reproductive system Anatomy of male and female reproductive system, Functions of male and female reproductive system, sex hormones, physiology of menstruation, fertilization, spermatogenesis, oogenesis, pregnancy and parturition

Introduction to genetics Chromosomes, genes and DNA, protein synthesis, genetic pattern of inheritance


HAP 2nd Semester Notes PDF:

Theese notes are designed to provide a comprehensive overview of the subject matter, and are an invaluable resource for anyone studying HAP 2 in their first semester.

One of the advantages of using these notes is that they are available in PDF format, which means they can be accessed and read on any device, including smartphones, tablets, and laptops. This makes it easy to study on the go, and to access the notes whenever you need them.

HAP 2nd Semester Notes PDF Download

In conclusion, HAP 2nd semester notes in PDF format are an excellent resource for anyone studying HAP 2. They provide a comprehensive overview of the subject matter, and are easily accessible and easy to understand. So if you want to ace your HAP 2 exams, be sure to check them out!

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