Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 Notes PDF:

If you are a student studying HAP (Human Anatomy and Physiology) in the first semester, you might be looking for notes to help you prepare for your exams. Fortunately, there are HAP 1st semester notes available in PDF format that can be easily downloaded and used for your studies.

Unit 1

Introduction to human body
Definition and scope of anatomy and physiology, levels of structural organization and body systems, basic life processes, homeostasis, basic anatomical terminology.

Cellular level of organization
Structure and functions of cell, transport across cell membrane, cell division, cell junctions. General principles of cell communication, intracellular signaling pathway activation by extracellular signal molecule, Forms of intracellular signaling: a) Contact-dependent b) Paracrine c) Synaptic d) Endocrine

Tissue level of organization
Classification of tissues, structure, location and functions of epithelial, muscular and nervous and connective tissues.

Unit 2

Integumentary system
Structure and functions of skin

Skeletal system
ivisions of skeletal system, types of bone, salient features and functions of bones of axial and appendicular skeletal system Organization of skeletal muscle, physiology of muscle contraction, neuromuscular junction

tructural and functional classification, types of joints movements and its articulation

Unit 3

Body fluids and blood
ody fluids, composition and functions of blood, hemopoeisis, formation of hemoglobin, anemia, mechanisms of coagulation, blood grouping, Rh factors, transfusion, its significance and disorders of blood, Reticulo endothelial system.

Lymphatic system
ymphatic organs and tissues, lymphatic vessels, lymph circulation and functions of lymphatic system

Unit 4

Peripheral nervous system
lassification of peripheral nervous system: Structure and functions of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Origin and functions of spinal and cranial nerves.

Special senses
tructure and functions of eye, ear, nose and tongue and their disorders.

Unit 5

Cardiovascular system
Heart – anatomy of heart, blood circulation, blood vessels, structure and functions of artery, vein and capillaries, elements of conduction system of heart and heart beat, its regulation by autonomic nervous system, cardiac output, cardiac cycle. Regulation of blood pressure, pulse, electrocardiogram and disorders of heart.

HAP 1st Semester Notes PDF:

These notes cover various topics related to health and physical education, including nutrition, exercise physiology, biomechanics, and sports psychology. They are designed to provide a comprehensive overview of the subject matter, and are an invaluable resource for anyone studying HAP in their first semester.

One of the advantages of using these notes is that they are available in PDF format, which means they can be accessed and read on any device, including smartphones, tablets, and laptops. This makes it easy to study on the go, and to access the notes whenever you need them.

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In conclusion, HAP 1st semester notes in PDF format are an excellent resource for anyone studying health and physical education. They provide a comprehensive overview of the subject matter, and are easily accessible and easy to understand. So if you want to ace your HAP exams, be sure to check them out!

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